Biz Law Full Revision Notes
ContentPrice And Payment TermOn Retail Trade LiberalizationMandaluyong, San Juan Mayors Condemn Illegal Online Selling Of Covid Vaccines, Order Probe Against ScammersBiz Law Full Revision NotesFury, Joshua Trade Blows On Social Media ▪ Thomson v London Midland Scottish Railway Co – The English Court of Appeal held that reasonably sufficient notice was given since the ticket […]

▪ Thomson v London Midland Scottish Railway Co – The English Court of Appeal held that reasonably sufficient notice was given since the ticket made reference, albeit rather circuitously, to the exemption clause. ▪ Geier v Kujawa, Weston & Warne Bros Ltd – The court held that there was no sufficiency of notice because Geier did not take the reasonable step of translating the notice. ▪ Henry Kendall & Sons v William Lillico & Sons & Ors - The EC formed part of the contracts . Distinguish between financial assets and non-financial assets. Financial assets and non-financial assets differ based on how the assets are bought and sold. Many financial assets, such as stocks and bonds, will trade on exchanges and can be bought and sold on any business day that exchange is open.

While, a non- financial asset is an asset that derives its value from its physical trait intellectual property. On the other hand, over-the-counter exchange, is where shares, bonds and money market instrument are traded using a system of computer screens and telephone. Dealer in an over-the- counter market attempt to match up the orders they receive Foreign exchange market from investors to buy and sell its stock. Many common stocks are traded over the counter although the majority of the largest corporations have their shares traded at organized stock exchange. Having a well-functioning financial system in place that directs funds to their most productive uses is a crucial prerequisite for economic development.

Bradbury v Morgan – The court held that the death of an offeror did not terminate the offer unless the offeree had notice of the offeror’s death. Suitable investor protection and regulationExcessive regulation can stifle a market. On the other hand, Universal Bank or Expanded Commercial Bank is any commercial bank, which performs the investment house function in addition to its commercial baking authority. It may invest in the ‘equities of allied and non-allied enterprises.

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Some investment analysts argue that very low interest rates on some long-term bonds make them risky investment.When investment rates rise, investment prices fall (and vise-versa), with long-term bonds is most sensitive to rate changes. This is because longer-term bonds have a greater duration than short-term bonds that are closer to maturity and have fewer coupon lexatrade scam payments remaining. Long-term bonds are also exposed to a greater probability that interest rates will change over its remaining duration. A breach of condition gives the injured party the option to affirm the contract, keeping it on foot or alternatively discharging the contract. To discharge the contract is to cease all obligations from date of breach.

Price And Payment Term

LiquidityThe ease with which trading can be conducted. In an illiquid market an investor may have difficulty finding another party ready to make the desired trade, and the difference, or spread, between the price for which it can be sold, may be high. Risk ManagementFutures, options and other derivatives contracts can provide protection against many types of risk, such as the possible that a foreign currency will lose value against the domestic currency before an export payment is received. They also enable the markets to attach a price to risk, allowing firms and individuals to trade risks so they can reduce their exposure to some while retaining exposure to others. Commercial TransactionAs well as long-term capital, the financial markets provide the grease that makes many commercial transactions possible.

What comprises the financial system? The financial system is complex, comprising many different types of private sector financial institutions, including banks, insurance companies, finance companies, mutual funds, and investment banks, all of which are regulated by the government.  Forward contracts - An agreement to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price as of a future date. This is a highly customizable derivative, which is not traded on an exchange.  Stocks - are financial assets with no set ending or expiration date. An investor buying stocks becomes part-owner of a company and shares in its profits and losses. Stocks may be held indefinitely or sold to other investors.

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When a market experiences an imbalance, it can lead to market failure.  Preference Shares - more commonly referred to as preferred stock, are shares of a company’s stock with dividends that are paid out to shareholders before common stock dividends are issued. If the company enters bankruptcy, preferred stockholders are entitled to be paid from company assets before common stockholders.

Either way, monitoring the supply and demand for money is vital for the economy’s central bank’s monetary policy, which aims to stabilize price levels and to support economic growth. PredictingStudents learn to become aware in the economy and learn to understand economic analysis. EvaluatingStudents learn to become aware in the economy and learn to understand economic analysis. Over-the-counter – usually bank to bank or from money changers. Some local pawnshops in the Philippines also do foreign exchange.

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but also involves huge flow of funds throughout the world economy. The study of financial markets and institutions will reward me with an understanding of many exciting issues such as how funds are transferred from people who have an excess of available funds to people who have shortage. And how well-functioning financial markets are a key factor in producing high economic growth and poorly performing financial markets are one reason that many countries in the world remain desperately poor. What are the attributes of financial markets that investors as well as creditors are looking for?

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Legal tender is established by a statute which specifies the thing to be used as legal tender and the institution that is authorized to produce and issue it to the public. Before its invention, people bartered, swapping goods they produced themselves for things they needed from others. Barter is sufficient for simple transactions, but not when the things traded are of differing values, or not available at the same time. Money, by contrast, has a recognized uniform value and is widely accepted.

Mandaluyong, San Juan Mayors Condemn Illegal Online Selling Of Covid Vaccines, Order Probe Against Scammers

equities often make periodic payment to their holders and are considered long-term securities because they have no maturity date. In addition, owning stock means that you own a portion of the firm and thus have the right to vote on issues important to the firm and to elect its directors.

  • Dealer in an over-the- counter market attempt to match up the orders they receive from investors to buy and sell its stock.
  • ArbitrageIn countries with poorly developed financial markets, commodities and currency may trade at very different prices in different locations.
  • It directly influences the rate of economic growth and the value of currency.
  • ▪ Geier v Kujawa, Weston & Warne Bros Ltd – The court held that there was no sufficiency of notice because Geier did not take the reasonable step of translating the notice.
  • Second method of raising funds is by issuing equity instruments, such as common or ordinary stock, which are claims to share in the net income and the asset of the business.
  • Enumerate and describe the sources of demand for money.

The well developed and smoothly operated financial market plays a major important role in the growth and efficiency of a country. It helps in the efficient direct flow of savings and investments in the economy which facilitates the accumulation of capital and contribution in the production of goods and services. Second method of raising funds is by issuing equity instruments, such as common or ordinary stock, which are claims to share in the net income and the asset of the business. If you own one share of common stock in a company that has issued one million shares, you are entitled of 1 one- millionth of the firm’s net income and 1 one-millionth of firm’s assets.

But economist and national leaders are increasingly interested about measuring money as it measures the national success. In addition, the BSP responsible for determining the supply of money, they influence the creation of money by banks lexatrade rezension and to guide the availability of in the economy. The changes in the supply of money will affect the interest rate and therefore the cost of borrowing money. This will have an impact on consumption and investment levels in the economy.

Why is there a need for an efficient financial system for a country to have a strong economy? A developed economy relies on financial markets and institutions for efficient transfer of funds. Every person’s life, family, business, and government are affected by the financial system.

Biz Law Full Revision Notes

the impact, however, is much more significant for a small and open economy such as the Philippines which is a price taker, rather than a price setter. There are risks with rising Philippine interest rates and a local currency that continues to depreciate against the US dollar. Drivers of growth are shifting from quarter to quarter and the authorities need to be cognizant of the factors that could derail the growth momentum.

Give examples of financial equity instruments and explain each briefly. Ordinary Shares - Ordinary shares of stock represent proportional ownership of a company. Shares come with voting rights equaling one vote per share. Owners of ordinary shares may or may not receive dividends based on a company’s performance.  Bonds - are one way that companies or governments finance short- term projects. The bondholder is the lender, and the bonds state how much money is owed, the interest rate being paid, and the bond's maturity date.  Certificate of deposit - allows an investor to deposit an amount of money at a bank for a specified period with a guaranteed interest rate.

Compare that when moving money using Paypal or Western Union. It is more volatile than the most volatile stock out there. It is not a safe haven for your money. It is what scammers use to get your money because it is stock exchange not reversible . For those who would like to “mine” bitcoins, all you need is a bitcoin mining software and a powerful PC – be it a workstation PC on your 3D modelling work or a gaming PC at your home, it’ll do.

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Information gathering and sharing - third service of the financial system is the collection and communication of information, or facts about borrowers Forex platform and expectations of returns on financial assets. Banks collect information on borrowers to forecast their likelihood of repaying loans.

Explain briefly how money facilitates the flow of resources in macroeconomy.Money facilitates the flow of resources in the circular model of macroeconomy. Not enough money will slow down the economy, and too much money can cause inflation because of higher price levels.

In support of alternative view, in Dickson Trading Pte Ltd v Transmarco Ltd , Chan Kek Keong JC said “the offeror in a unilateral contract has an obligation not to revoke the offer after the offeree has embarked on the performance of the conditions." Asset ValuationMarket prices offer the best way to determine the value of a firm or the firm’s asset, or property. This is important not only to those buying and selling businesses, but also to regulators. On the other hand, non-financial liabilities are mainly contingencies or types of liabilities that are not of financial transaction origin.

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